Маханидхи Мадан Гопал Дас

Ученые говорят, что Брахма-Вайварта-пурана – одна из самых распространенных  пуран. Следующий стих часто цитируют, в доказательство  существования 10 000-летней золотой эры в Кали-югу.

Однако, в книгах Гаудия Ачарьев это нигде не упоминается.

шри-бхагаван-увача
калер -даша-сахасрани
мад-бхактах -шанти-бху-тале
эка-варна -бхавишьяни
мад-бхактешу-гатешу-ча

Перевод:

Бхагаван Шри Кришна говорит : “В течении 10 000 лет Кали-юги Мои преданные будут существовать на земле. После ухода Моих преданных останется только одна варна” (“Брахма-вайварта пурана”, текст 59).

Комментарий: Из 10 000 лет пять тысяч уже прошли. Так что осталось всего 5000 лет, а не 10 000 лет. В этом стихе НИЧЕГО НЕ говорится О ЗОЛОТОМ ВЕКЕ! Таким образом, идея 10 000-летнего периода золотого века не подтверждается этим стихом. Однако этот стих напоминает всем нам: “У вас осталось всего 5000 лет (60 рождений), чтобы повторять Маха-мантру Харе Кришна, стать чистым Кришна-бхактой и достичь вечной любовной севы Радхе-Кришне во Вриндаване!”

[любезно предоставлено Пандитом Сатьянараяном Дасджи и Шри Адвайтой Дасджи]

Mahanidhi Madan Gopal Das

Scholars say the Brahma Vaivarta Purana is one of the most interpolated Puranas. The following verse is often quoted to prove existence of a 10,000-year golden era in Kali-yuga.

However, this point is not mentioned anywhere in the books of the Gaudiya Acharyas.

sri-bhagavan -uvaca
kaler -dasha-sahasrani

mad -bhaktah -santi -bhu-tale
eka -varna -bhavishyani
mad -bhakteshu -gateshu -ca

Translation:

Bhagavan Sri Krishna said, “For 10,000 years of Kali-yuga My devotees will exist on earth. After the departure of My devotees there will be only one varna.” (Brahma-vaivarta Purana text 59)

Comment: Out of 10,000 years, five thousand have already passed. So only 5000 years remain; not 10,000 years. This verse says NOTHING ABOUT A GOLDEN AGE!

So, the idea of 10,000 year period of a golden age is not supported by this verse. However, the verse is reminding all of us:

“You only have 5,000 more years left (60 births) to chant the Hare Krishna Maha-mantra, become a pure Krishna bhakta, and attain the eternal loving seva of Radha-Krishna in Vrindavan!”

[courtesy Pandit Satyanarayan Dasji & Sri Advaita Dasji]

Mahanidhi Madan Gopal Das

Srivasa Pandita, fifth member of the Panca tattva, Sri Krsna Caitanya, Prabhu Nityananda, Sri Advaita, Gadadhara, Srivasadi, Gaura Bhakta Vrnda lived in Navadvipa before the advent of Lord Caitanya. Srivasa lead his brothers Sri Rama, Sri Nidhi, and Sripati in their devotional lives of singing Krsna’s names, worshiping the Lord, and bathing thrice daily in the Ganges.
Meeting with Sri Advaita Acarya Prabhu, they studied Bhagavatam and prayed for an incarnation of the Supreme Lord. Why did they pray? Because only an avatara of Krsna could reestablish Vaisnavism among the staunch atheists, logicians, and proud Panditas harassing Nadia at that time.
Malini, wife of Srivasa, was a constant friend of Saci Devi. She served Nimai as a nurse. When Lord Visvambhara appeared, the hearts of all the devotees were filled with parental affection (vatsalya bhava). Gauracandra loved Malini and Srivasa as a second mother and father.
Srivasa Angam was located two hundred yards north of Nimai’s bari (house). Srivasa Pandita’s palatial home had large comfortable rooms, a high protective boundary wall, and lush densely foliated gardens and groves. Everynight Sri Gauranga Mahaprabhu and His dearest friends would enjoy ecstatic kirtanas here and taste the mellows of Vrndavana.
Here, the raging Muslim Kazi broke the sacred mrdanga in his foolish attempt to stop Sri Krsna’s Sankirtana Movement. Henceforward, Srivasa Angam was known as Khol Banga Danga (place where the mrdanga was broken).
The Kazi passed an ordinance prohibiting sankirtana. Violators would be converted to the Muslim faith and lose their property. Although most Nadia vasis (residents of Navadvipa) panicked over this, Srivasa Pandita laughed at the fanatical law.
Within Srivasa Angam Lord Gauranga sundara showed His divine form to all His eternal associates. The house of Srivasa Pandita served as the headquarters of Gauranga’s Sankirtana Movement. The daily Bhagavatam classes, nightly kirtanas, and many confidential Vraja pastimes of Lord Gaura Raya occured here.
Srivasa Pandita and Sri Advaita Acarya, the learned chiefs of the brahmana community, dedicated all their energy to the Lord’s Hari Nama Sankirtana Movement. They surrendered their bodies, minds, homes, friends, family, and all possessions to Lord Gaura’s service. They knew no other gods or goddesses. Srivasa Pandita maintained his family, not because they were his relatives, but because they were Sri Caitanya’s loving servants.
Srivasa Pandita represents the marginal living entity (tatastha jiva). The devotees headed by Srivasa are described as Lord Caitanya’s smaller limbs (His face, eyes, hands, disc, other weapons.) They all took part in Sri Gaurasundara’s pastimes. With them Lord Gauranga spread the sankirtana movement. Srivasa Pandita is Narada Muni, an inter galactic preacher and constant associate of the Lord. His samadhi is in the 64 Samadhis Area.

Mahanidhi Madan Gopal Das

Five hundred years ago in Jagannatha Puri, Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya asked Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu which item is the most important form of devotional service.

bhakti-sādhana-śreṣṭha śunite haila mana
prabhu upadeśa kaila nāma-saṅkīrtana
harer nāma harer nāma, harer nāmaiva kevalam
kalau nāsty eva nāsty eva, nāsty eva gatir anyathā

Sarvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya asked Caitanya Mahāprabhu, ‘Which item is most important in the execution of devotional service?’ Mahaprabhu replied that the most important item was the chanting of the holy name of the Lord. Then Mahaprabhu quoted a verse from Bṛhan-nāradīya Purāṇa:

‘In this age of quarrel and hypocrisy, the only means of deliverance is the chanting of the holy names of the Lord. There is no other way. There is no other way. There is no other way.’ (Caitanya Caritamrita,  Madhya 6.241-2)

Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu always emphasized the supremacy of nama-bhajana in His preaching. In Jagannatha Puri, Mahaprabhu also instructed Sanatana Gosvami on this point:

bhajanera madhye śreṣṭha nava-vidhā bhakti
‘kṛṣṇa-prema’, ‘kṛṣṇa’ dite dhare mahā-śakti
tāra madhye sarva-śreṣṭha nāma-saṅkīrtana
niraparādhe nāma laile pāya prema-dhana

Of all the different spiritual practices, the nine forms of bhakti (sravanam, kirtanam, etc) are the best because they have great potency to deliver Kṛṣṇa and ecstatic love for Him. Of these nine practices, nama-sankirtana is the best. By chanting the holy name without offense, one very easily obtains the priceless treasure of kṛṣṇa-prema. (Caitanya Caritamrita, Antya 4.70-1)

“The Caitanya-caritāmṛta states that of the nine ways of devotional service to obtain love of God, the foremost is nāma-saṅkīrtana. One who chants nāma without offenses surely achieves love of God. Bhakti-sandarbha says no form of bhakti (i.e. mathurā-vāsa, sādhu-saṅga, srī-murti sevā, and bhāgavata-sravana) is complete without Śrī Kṛṣṇa nāma-saṅkīrtana. The Hari-bhakti-sudhodaya says that saṅkīrtana is the best and foremost of all spiritual practices for attaining Kṛṣṇa’s mercy. If the other practices of bhakti are helpful to it, they should then be accepted.” (Sri Caitanya’s Teachings)

“Sri-nama bhajana is more powerful than all other forms of bhajana (nava-vidha-bhakti). There is no difference between nama (the holy name) and nami (Bhagavan, who possesses the name.) If you chant nama without offense, you will very quickly attain all perfection. All nine forms of bhajana are automatically carried out by performing nama-bhajana. When one utters sri-nama, he is engaged in hearing and chanting (sravanam, kirtanam). As one continues to chant, one also remembers the pastimes of Kṛṣṇa, and within the mind one serves Kṛṣṇa’s lotus feet (pada-sevanam), worships Him (arcanam), offers prayers (vandanam), serves Kṛṣṇa in the mood of a servant (dasyam) or friend (sakhyam), and offers one’s very self to Kṛṣṇa (atma-nivedanam).” (Jaiva Dharma ch. 4)

Upon completing the description of the sixty-four limbs of devotional service, Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī mentions five of them as the most important items. Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura clearly shows how each one of these five most potent devotional processes points to the chanting of the holy name.

Sarasvatī Ṭhākura once explained that after careful consideration of the five limbs of bhakti, the best practice is srī-nāma bhajana. The next entry shows how chanting Kṛṣṇa’s holy names is the root of all nine forms of devotion and is glorified above all.

(1) Sādhu-saṅga­­­­­­­­­­­­­–associating with devotees is recommended to create a taste or inclination for srī-nāma bhajana. This comes from associating with holy saints who are attached to chanting Kṛṣṇa’s holy names with firm faith and who systematically chant the names.

(2) Bhāgavata-śravaṅa–hearing Śrīmad Bhāgavatam which itself declares sri-nāma bhajana to be the highest virtue. In its beginning, middle (sixth canto, Ājamila story), and end, the Śrīmad Bhāgavatam repeatedly stresses the efficacy of sri-nāma bhajana.

(3) Mathurā-vāsa–sri-nāma bhajana is situated at the root of residence in Vṛndāvana or Śrīdhāma Māyāpur. The sādhus living in or visiting these holy places are always engaged in nāma-saṅkīrtana.

(4) Śrī-murti-sevā–the service of Kṛṣṇa’s Deity is always conducted with mantras full of God’s names. The Hari-bhakti-vilāsa and Śrī Jīva Gosvāmī say that Deity service must be accompanied with chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra for it to be accepted.

(5) Nāma-saṅkīrtana–is directly chanting the holy names.

“Of all means of bhajana (devotional service), the name of Kṛṣṇa is most purely spiritual. In describing the absolute duties, Hari-bhakti-vilāsa states that singing and meditating on Śrī Nāma (Kṛṣṇa’s holy names) is the best devotional activity.

“The most advanced devotees who have fully dedicated themselves to Śrī Kṛṣṇa take exclusive refuge in kṛṣṇa-nāma amongst all other practices of devotion. There is no other performance so pure and spiritual as singing the name of Kṛṣṇa.” (Nama-bhajana)

According to Sri Jiva Gosvami, chanting the holy name is not only the greatest form of sadhana, but it must accompany every other form of devotional service: “Chanting the holy name of Kṛṣṇa is the chief means of attaining love of God. This chanting does not depend on any paraphernalia, nor birth in a good family. All the Vedas proclaim that by humility and meekness one attracts the attention of Kṛṣṇa. Therefore, chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa is the greatest sadhana (mahā-sādhanānam), and the fulfillment of all sacrifice, penance and austerities. Simply by chanting one achieves ecstatic love of God and complete perfection in life. Therefore, whatever one does in executing devotional service must be accompanied with the chanting of the holy name.” (Bhakti-sandarbha 270)

An excerpt from the book Art of Chanting

Mahanidhi Madan Gopal Das

kṛṣṇa-mantra haite habe saṁsāra-mocana,
kṛṣṇa-nāma haite pābe kṛṣṇera caraṇa

Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu said, “The kṛṣṇa mantra (gopala mantra) gives one freedom from material existence. And kṛṣṇa nama (the Hare Kṛṣṇa maha-mantra) delivers one to the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa.” (Caitanya Caritamrita Ādi 7.73)

In this verse, Lord Caitanya describes the effects of chanting the eighteen-syllable gopala mantra and the Hare Kṛṣṇa maha-mantra. Of the two mantras, Sri Jiva Gosvami emphasizes chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa maha-mantra in Bhakti Sandarbha 284: “Mantras are actually composed of the names of the Supreme Lord. Mantras are distinct from the name because they include the word “namah” [or svaha], and have special powers that are given by the rsis or the Lord Himself. The holy names of the Lord, however, in themselves, being independent, can bestow the higest goal of life, Kṛṣṇa-prema. Thus the names of Kṛṣṇa are more suitable than mantras.”

In Kṛṣṇa Samhita, Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura describes the various mantras given to liberate one in the different yugas. In Satya, Treta and Dvapara yugas these mantras, called tāraka-brahma-nāma, addressed the Supreme Lord with feelings of awe and reverence invoking His divine power, majesty and protection (aisvarya-bhava). The tāraka-brahma-nāma for Kali-yuga is the Hare Kṛṣṇa maha-mantra, a selfless call for loving service.

In the Gaudiya conception, samsara-mocana, or liberation means to realize one’s svarupa. At this stage, the Brahma Gayatri and the gopala mantra retire, but chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa continues to deliver one to the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa (kṛṣṇa-carana), in the spiritual world. This is the final stage of spiritual evolution wherein one attains his vastu siddhi, (pure spiritual form), and engages in Kṛṣṇa’s eternal service.

Whether one is in Kṛṣṇaloka or the material world, chanting Kṛṣṇa’s holy name is the eternal function of the soul. In the material world, chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa is the primary activity for purification and spiritual elevation. Everything else is auxiliary or supportive of the main service of chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa. Upon entering the spiritual world, however, chanting the holy name will be in the background, helping and energizing. Serving Radha-Govinda will be in the foreground, distinct and most important. For example, when the gopīs churn fresh yogurt for Kṛṣṇa’s butter, they simultaneously sing His glories while keeping time with their bangles and waistbells.

An excerpt from the book Art of Chanting

Mahanidhi Madan Gopal Das

“Kṛṣṇa-nāma has been accepted by all to be an incarnation of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa on this earth. Although He appears like a word, Kṛṣṇa, still by His inconceivable power He is completely spiritual. The name is a special incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. As Kṛṣṇa and His name are identical, Kṛṣṇa has descended to earth as nāma. Kṛṣṇa-nāma is our first introduction to Kṛṣṇa. Therefore, we first meet Kṛṣṇa in His name. With determination to reach Kṛṣṇa, we must first accept the name of Kṛṣṇa.” (Nama Bhajana)

“Nāma is also another incarnation of Kṛṣṇa. Nāma-rūpe kali-kāle kṛṣṇa-avatāra. Because name and Kṛṣṇa are not different. Abhinnatvād nāma-nāminoḥ. There is no difference. In the material world there is difference between the name and the substance. But in advaya-jñāna, the Absolute world, there is no such distinction. The name and the person are the same, identical.” (SPT 30/10/72)

How does Hare Kṛṣṇa japa purify the chanter? “Chanting gradually diminishes the propensity to sin, and simultaneously purifies the consciousness. At this juncture, a taste for chanting begins to manifest. The inclination to commit sinful acts vanishes, though a faint residue of previous sinful acts still lingers in the consciousness. The receding sinful reactions leave an odor of sinful habits. But the chanter’s contact with the name produces a purity of mind and strength of willpower that overcomes the clinging smell of sin.” (Hari-nama-cintamani)

An excerpt from the book Art of Chanting

Mahanidhi Madan Gopal Das

Kṛṣṇa’s holy name–full of mercy, full of compassion, full of affection, full of rasa and full of prema–is the rarest treasure in the world. Without hearing from sastra and saints, however, one can never understand the power, value and benefit of Sri Kṛṣṇa’s divine name, form, attributes, pastimes and holy abode (nama, rupa, guna, lila, dhama). Throughout the Vedas the transcendental glories of the holy name are recounted.

The following verse from the Padma Purana compares the holy name to a cintamani gem, a divine stone that can bestow one’s desired results. Such cintamani gems make up the transcendental land of Kṛṣṇaloka in the spiritual world. This verse clearly describes the transcendental identity of the holy name:

nāma cintāmaṇiḥ kṛṣṇaś, caitanya-rasa-vigrahaḥ
pūrṇaḥ śuddho nitya-mukto, ‘bhinnatvān nāma-nāminoḥ

The holy name of Kṛṣṇa is a transcendental wish-fulfilling gem (cintamani); it is the embodiment of all consciousness and sentiments; it is complete; it is pure; it is ever free because the name of Kṛṣṇa and Kṛṣṇa Himself are one and the same.

Srila Prabhupada gives a wonderful expanded translation of this verse:

“The holy name of Kṛṣṇa is transcendentally blissful. It bestows all spiritual benedictions, for it is Kṛṣṇa Himself, the reservoir of all pleasure. Kṛṣṇa’s name is complete, and it is the form of all the transcendental mellows. It is not a material name under any condition, and it is no less powerful than Kṛṣṇa Himself. Since Kṛṣṇa’s name is not contaminated by the material qualities, there is no question of its being involved with māyā. Kṛṣṇa’s name is always liberated and spiritual. It is never conditioned by the laws of material nature. This is because the name of Kṛṣṇa and Kṛṣṇa Himself are identical.” (Caitanya Caritamrita Madhya 17.133 p.)

The following story from Vaisnava tradition illustrates the incomparable value of Kṛṣṇa’s holy name.

Once a disciple asked his guru for the topmost secret of bhajana. The guru replied, “The most confidential secret of bhajana is to always chant the maha-mantra–Hare Kṛṣṇa Hare Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa Hare Hare, Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare!”

After leaving his guru’s asrama, the disciple met some poor washermen who were chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa while scrubbing clothes beside the Yamuna. He then heard some little girls chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa while collecting cow dung. When the disciple hired a ricksaw, the skinny old driver chanted Hare Kṛṣṇa all the way back to the asrama.

Meeting his guru, the disciple expressed a doubt about the maha-mantra, “Gurudeva! What kind of secret have you given to me that is known to every dhobi, ricksaw-walla and little girl in India? Is this really the most confidential secret of bhajana?”

Instead of a long explanation, the guru handed the disciple a precious jewel and said, “Show this jewel to the dhobi, ricksaw-walla and little girls, and see if they appreciate its value.” The disciple then showed the priceless jewel to the illiterate washermen, but they could not detect the value of the jewel. They said they would gladly accept it, and use it for beating their dirty cloth. The disciple refused to give them the gem, saying, “You have to pay the proper price for it. A stone or piece of wood is sufficient for beating dirty cloth.”

Upon seeing the jewel, the ricksaw-walla said, “Since it is a little rough, I think it is just suitable for scraping off the dry skin from my feet.” “Are you crazy!” said the disciple as he walked on to show the village girls. Failing to recognize the true worth of the jewel, the girls said, “We could use the jewel to pack our cow dung.”

The disciple again met with his guru and said, “Gurudeva! Nobody wanted to pay the proper price for the jewel. Nor could anyone appreciate the great value of the gem.”

“Yes, in the same way,” said the guru, “most people cannot appreciate the value of the holy name. For this reason, they are indifferent to the chanting of Hare Kṛṣṇa. The Hare Kṛṣṇa maha-mantra is an open secret that is revealed only to the qualified.”

An excerpt from the book Art of Chanting

Mahanidhi Madan Gopal Das
The Holy Name is Transcendental
What does it mean that the holy name of Kṛṣṇa is transcendental, and should never be considered a material sound vibration? The holy name has absolutely nothing to do with the mundane world of matter. The holy name is not a combination of material letters and syllables. The form of the holy name is sat-cit-ananda, eternal blissful consciousness. Although in this world, the holy name is not of this world. The divine name of the Lord is not a product of the material world. Only a liberated soul can purely pronounce the transcendental holy name. A conditioned soul covered by the modes of nature cannot utter the pure name (cintamani-nama).
“Nama is aprakrta-caitanya-rasa (a transcendental living mellow). Within nama there is not any scent of mundane consciousness. When the devoted jiva becomes purified through bhakti and renders service to sri-harinama, sri-nama personally manifests on his tongue. Nama cannot be accepted with material senses.” (Jaiva Dharma ch.20)
When the conditioned soul pleases Sri Guru and Sri Kṛṣṇa, the svarupa-sakti (internal spiritual potency) of the Lord descends upon him, and enables him to purely chant the divine name. Kṛṣṇa’s svarupa-sakti is a combination of hladini-sakti (bliss potency personified as Sri Radha) and samvit-sakti (knowledge potency personified as Lord Baladeva). Kṛṣṇa’s svarupa-sakti manifests the pure name in a surrendered heart saturated with devotion. Enriched with ecstatic rasas, the pure name then embraces the tongue in the dance of prema.
When explaining the transcendental nature of the holy name, Srila Prabhupada often compared the chanting of the word “water” to the name of Kṛṣṇa. The following quotes by His Divine Grace beautifully illuminate the essence of divine wisdom:
“In the relative world, the word “water” and the substance water are different. When I am thirsty, if I simply chant “Water, water, water,” my thirst will not be satisfied. I require the real water. That is the nature of the relative world and relative consciousness. But in the spiritual world or spiritual consciousness, the name is the same as the thing that is named. For instance, we are chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa. If Kṛṣṇa were different from the chanting of Hare Kṛṣṇa, then how could we be satisfied chanting the whole day and night? This is the proof. An ordinary name­­­­–if you chant “Mr. John, Mr. John,” after chanting three times you will cease. But this Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra–if you go on chanting twenty-four hours a day, you will never become tired. This is the spiritual nature of the Absolute Truth. This is practical. Anyone can perceive it.” (Civilization and Transcendence ch. 7)
“Kṛṣṇa’s words and He are not different. That is omnipotency. Omnipotency means everything relating to Kṛṣṇa has the same potency. Just like here in this material world, if you are thirsty and want water, simply calling repeatedly, “water, water, water, water, water,” will not satisfy your thirst. Because the word “water” has not the same potency as water itself. You require the water as it is. Then your thirst will be satisfied. But in the transcendental, absolute world, there is no such difference. Kṛṣṇa and Kṛṣṇa’s name, Kṛṣṇa’s words and Kṛṣṇa’s qualities, Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes–everything is Kṛṣṇa.” (SPT 25/3/67)
“So immediately you can be in touch with Kṛṣṇa by vibrating this sound, Hare Kṛṣṇa. It is so potent. Nāma cintāmaṇiḥ kṛṣṇaś caitanya-rasa-vigrahaḥ. The name of Kṛṣṇa is cintāmaṇi, transcendental. It is not this material sound, material name. Nāma cintāmaṇiḥ kṛṣṇaś caitanya. Living force, caitanya. It is not dead sound. If you want water, if you chant only “Water, water, water, water,” you will not get water, because it is material sound. The water substance is different from the word “water”. Therefore, simply by chanting, “water, water” you cannot quench your thirst. You must have the substance water. That is material sound. Anything you take, simply by chanting the name, you will not get the thing. That is material.
“But in the spiritual world, the name and the person or the substance is the same. Kṛṣṇa and Kṛṣṇa’s name is the same. There is no difference. Therefore, those who are chanting “Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa,” they are becoming more and more enthusiastic to chant.” (SPT 22/1/75).
An excerpt from the book Art of Chanting

Mahanidhi Madan Gopal Das

The Kaustubha jewel is an eternal, uniquely distinguishing necklace adorning the beautiful transcendental bodies of both Bhagavan Sri Krishna and Sri Vishnu.

But did you know that Kaustubha contains all the jivas? Did you know that Srimati Radharani can be seen in the Kaustubha? And did you know that Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu’s lila can be seen in the Kaustubha?

Identity of the Kaustubha

Before answering these intriguing questions let’s first establish the color of the Kaustubha gem. The Srimad Bhagavatam (SB 8.8.6) says, “Kaustubha is a type of ruby.” (Sri Bhanu Swami)

In Ānanda Vrndavana Campu (22.25), Sri Kavi Karnapur says:

kaustubha -rashmi-pura-shonayamana-vara-mauktika.

The word shonayamana means ‘reddened’.

In Krishna Bhavanamrta (12.65), Visvanatha Cakravartipada says:

uditendu -surya -shata -nindi
kaustubha-acchalato -yato
-jagad -avapa -raktatam

“The Kaustubha gem defeats the rising sun and moon and pervades the universe with redness.”

However, Krishna Bhavanamrita also compares Kaustubha with Krishna Himself when Radhika wears it on Her chest after winning it in the dice game (ch.15), which would indicate it is Krishna’s color.

Or it can be read that the Kaustubha is just being a representative of Krishna on Radhika’s chest because the Kaustubha gem is normally an inseparable apparel of Krishna.

The conclusion is that although Krishna’s Kaustubha gem is an unlimitedly brilliant and beautiful transcendental jewel, it is deep red in color something like a ruby.

All Jivas Are in the Kaustubha Jewel

Gopal-tappani-Upanisad (67) says, “Because by its essence, its light, the Kaustubha is the shelter of all jivas, tejasa-sva-svarupina.

Srimad Bhagavatam (3.28.28), says, “The Kaustubha jewel on Krishna’s neck represents jiva-tattva (caityasya tattvam)

Sri Jiva Goswamipada tika:
The Kaustubha is the shelter of all  jivas (maha-samasti-rupa). (Krama Sandarbha Canto 3)

Visvanatha Cakravartipada tika:
The Kaustubha is the tattva of jiva-shakti. Vishnu Purana says, “The Kaustubha represents the unlimited rays or jivas, vibharti -kaustubha-mani-svarupam -bhagavan -hari.”

Dr. Sri Satyanarayan Dasji said, “The Kaustubha gem that Bhagavan wears on His chest is also a samasti-jiva because it is the embodiment of the tatastha-shakti.” (Paramatma Sandarbha)

Srimad Bhagavatam (12.11.10) says:

kaustubha-vyapadeshena
svatma-jyotir -bibharty -ajah
tat-prabha -vyapini -sakshat
shrivatsam -urasa -vibhuh

“Upon His chest the almighty, unborn Bhagavan Hari wears the Kaustubha gem which represents the pure spirit soul.”

Visvanatha Cakravartipada tika:

The effulgence from the svarupa of the Kaustubha (vyapadeshena) supports the pure jiva. Thus, Bhagavan Sri Krishna holds His servant on his heart as confirmed in Srimad Bhagavatam (9.4.68):

sadhavo -hrdayam -mahyam
sadhunam -hrdayam -tv -aham
mad-anyat -te -na -jananti
naham -tebhyo -manag api

Bhagavan Sri Krishna said,  “The sadhu, saintly person, is always within the core of My heart, and I am always in the heart of the sadhu devotee. My devotees do not know anything else but Me, and I do not know anyone else but them.”

Pandit Sri Krishna Das Babaji Maharaja tika:

Babaji Maharaja personally told the author, “All jivas stay inside the Kaustubha gem on Sri Vishnu’s chest at the time of jagat pralaya. Kaustubha is the sarva-jiva-ashraya, shelter if all conditioned souls, jivatmas.”

Radharani in the Kaustubha Jewel

Sometimes when They separate after Their intimate nikunja lilas, Sri Krishna can still see the inconceivably beautiful form of Sri Radha inside His Kaustubha gem.

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu Lila in Kaustubha

Late one rapturous night in Nidhivan, Nikunjivani Sri Radha had a spectacular dream wherein Radha saw Chaitanya Mahaprabhu’s lila.

In Svapna Vilas Amrita, Visvanatha Cakravartipada recounts the dream thus:

Once, at the end of night (nishant-lila), while Lila Yugal Radha-Krishna were sleeping in a keli-kunja in Nidhivana, Vrishabhanu-nandini had an amazing dream. Upon waking, Kishori woke Her Prana-vallabha and said:

“Beloved, I just had an amazing dream wherein I saw an incomparable river, just like the Yamuna. On its charming banks I saw a wonderful golden-complexioned youth singing and dancing very beautifully to the rhythm of the mrdanga and kartalas.

“That golden youth was crying and uttering,

‘O Krishna, O Krishna!’ and sometimes He would utter, ‘O Radha, O Radha, where are You?’

“Sometimes He rolled on the ground, and sometimes He became unconscious. He freely distributed these sentiments to all the living entities in the universe.

“My beloved Shyam, upon seeing Him, I began to think, ‘Who is this golden-complexioned youth? Am I that golden youth who is constantly crying and uttering “O Krishna, O Krishna”? Or is this golden-complexioned youth You who is crying loudly, ‘O Radha, O Radha, where are You?’”

Sri Krishna said, “O Priyaji, at different times I have given You darshan of Narayan and some of My other forms, yet You were never astonished.

“I don’t know who this golden-complexioned youth that is bewildering Your mind.” While speaking Krishna smiled slightly.

Radhika said, “Prana-vallabha, now I understand that this golden form is no one but You. No one other than You is able to infatuate Me in this way.”

Then inside His Kaustubha jewel Shyam showed Sriji Her dream just as She had seen it.

Sri Krishna said, “Praneshvari! I will assume Your golden complexion and sentiments to appear in the form of Gauranga to personally relish Your blissful bhavas.

“And I will preach raganuga-bhakti, Harinam-sankirtan, and freely distribute Krishna prema. Radha, You will also appear on earth with Me as My associate.”

By this pastime Radha-Krishna gave an indication of the future appearance of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. (shastra input Sri Advaita Dasji)

Sri Krishna’s Kaustubha jewel ki jai! Jai Jai Sri Radhe!

Mahanidhi Madan Gopal Das

Herein we present a sweet selection of rasika-acharya, Sri Jiva Goswamipada’s Krishna prema-filled comments on the Venu-gita (Srimad Bhagavatam 10.21). By reading and studying these comments along with the verses of Venu-gita, you will attain a happy feeling in your heart, and renewed enthusiasm to love and serve Radha and Krishna more and more.

10.21.3 When the Vraja-gopis hear Shyama’s flute song, which incites Cupid’s influence, some gopis privately describe Krishna’s qualities to their intimate friends.

Sri Jiva Goswami’s tika: Seeing the autumnal beauty, Sri Krishna gets excited and practices flute playing to attract the gopis. Thus they become aroused (verse word smaraudaya), and start glorifying Krishna in this chapter. Although now Krishna is in pauganda period (5-10 years), His flute playing arouses amorous desires in the gopis because it magically manifests the kaisora age (10-15).

Not only ladies but all living entities in Vraja become immensely attracted (verse word sarva-bhuta-manoharam) to Krishna’s venu-nad. For Yashoda, it arouses vatsalya, motherly affection, and not smara or amorous intimacies. But for Radha it is smara, and thus Sriji herein reveals Her mental anguish to Her confidantes like Lalita-sakhi.

10.21.4 While speaking about Krishna, the damsels of Vrajabhumi remember His lilas. The power of Cupid, however, arises to agitate their minds and then they stop speaking.

Sri Jiva Goswami’s tika: This verse describes the sequence of rising love. Although they try, because of love’s impulses (verse word smaravegena), the gopis become mum. They simply think about that “heart stealer”, Muralimanohara, again and again.

10.21.5 Featuring a peacock-feather ornament upon his head, yellow karnikara flowers on his ears, a brilliant golden yellow garment, and a Vaijayanti garland, Sri Krishna looks like the best of dancers as He prances into Vrndaranya, beautifying it with the unique marks of his footprints. As Krishna fills the flute with the nectar of his lips, the gopas sing his glories.

Sri Jiva Goswami’s tika: Among all the sakhas, Govinda is most attractive, and even more so because now Krishna is dressed as a dancer (verse word natavesa). Filling the flute with the nectar of his lips means Krishna’s flute song is as attractive as Krishna’s adharamrta. The verse word vrndaranya means that sakhi Vrnda-devi has already cleaned and specially decorated the forest to stimulate Krishna’s lilas. The presence of Krishna’s extraordinary 19 footprints in the forest of Vrndavana gives bliss (verse word ramanam), to everyone especially Vrnda-devi. And the charming, soft dust, fragrant flowers, leaves etc. give delight (ramanam) to Radha-ramana’s lotus feet.

The verse describes Krishna’s natural adornments of feathers, leaves and Vraja flowers, and not His usual gold and pearl necklaces etc. Why? Because upon entering Vrndaranya, Krishna sets these aside in preference to decking Himself out with Vraja’s natural opulences of leaves, flowers, feathers, mineral pigments and gunja berries. Krishna is also sporting only forest decorations as appropriate for the first day of His Autumnal pastimes.

10.21.6 When the young Vraja-gopis hear Krishna’s venu, which steals the minds of all living beings, they embrace each other and describe it.

Sri Jiva Goswami’s tika: All the gopis (verse word vraja-striyasarva) indicates all degrees of attachment to Krishna i.e. deep, medium and light. Some gopis mentally embrace (verse word abhirebhire) Krishna who is seizing their hearts. Or due to arising love, other gopis mistake their sakhis to be Krishna and embrace them. And some sakhis embrace each other because their natural love is awakened.

Venu-gita ki jai! Sri Jiva Goswamipada ki jai!

Radha-Govinda Yugala ki jai! Jai Jai Sri Radhe!